The events that took place on the day of Al-Hunain.
The Book Sealed Nectar by Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
Battle of Hunain
On Wednesday night the tenth of Shawwal, the Muslim army arrived at Hunain. Malik bin ‘Awf, who had previously entered the valley by night, gave orders to his army to hide inside the valley and lurk for the Muslims on roads, entrances, narrow hiding places. His orders to his men were to hurl stones at Muslims whenever they caught sight of them and then to make a one-man attack against them.
At early dawn the Messenger of Allâh (saw) started mobilizing his army and distributing posts and flags to people. In the dark and just before dawn the Muslims moved towards Hunain Valley. They started descending into it unaware of the presence of an enemy lurking for them inside the valley. So at the moment they were camping, arrows began showering intensively at them, whereas the enemy’s battalions started a fierce attack against the Muslims, who had to retreat in disorder and utter confusion.
The Messenger of Allâh (saw) turned to the right and said: “Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allâh. I am Muhammad, the son of Abdullah.” Those who stoodfast by him were only few Emigrants and some of his kinsmen. The matchless bravery of the Prophet was then brought to light. He went on and on in his attempts to make his mule standfast in the face of the disbelievers while saying loudly:
“Truly saying, I am the Prophet
I am the (grand) son of Abdul Muttalib.”
However, Abu Sufyan, who was then holding the rein of the Prophet’s mule, and Al-‘Abbas, who was holding its stirrup; were endeavouring to make it halt. The Messenger of Allâh (saw) dismounted and asked his Lord to render him help.
“O, Allâh, send down Your Help!”
Mulsims’ return to the Battlefield, and the fierceness of the Fight:
The Messenger of Allâh ordered his uncle Al-‘Abbas — who was a sonorous voiced man — to call out on the followers. As loudly as he could, Al-‘Abbas shouted: “Where are the lancers?” “By Allâh,” Al-‘Abbas said, “Upon hearing my voice calling them back, they turned round to the battlefield as if they had been oryxes (wild cows) tending towards their calves.”
“Here we are, at your service. Here we are.” They said. There you see them trying to stop their camels and reverse to the battle. He who was unable to force his camel to turn back, would take his armour, fling it round his neck, and hastily dismount his camel with his weapon in his hand letting his camel move freely and run towards the voice source. Voices would grow louder and louder till a hundred of them gathered round the Prophet and resumed the fight.
Those who were called out upon next were Al-Ansar, the Helpers, “O, folks of Al-Ansar! Folks of Al-Ansar!”
The last group to be called out upon were Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj. Muslims battalions poured successively into the battlefield in the same manner that they had left it. The stamina of both parties was superb. Both of them stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Messenger of Allâh was so eagerly and furiously watching the battle that he said:
“Now the fight has grown fierce.”
Picking up a handful of earth, he hurled it at their faces while saying:
“May your faces be shameful.”
Their eyes were thick with dust and the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion.
Reverse of Fortunes and the Enemy’s utter Defeat:
Few hours had elapsed since the earth-handful was hurled at the enemy’s faces, when they were shatteringly defeated. About seventy men of Thaqif alone were killed, and the Muslims plundered all their riding camels, weapons and cattle.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
The Battle of Hunayn
The battle of Hunayn occurred after the victory of Makkah, in the month of Shawwal of the eighth year of Hijrah. After the Prophet conquered Makkah and things settled, most of its people embraced Islam and he set them free. News came to the Messenger of Allah that the tribe of Hawazin were gathering their forces to fight him, under the command of Malik bin `Awf An-Nadri, as well as, the entire tribe of Thaqif, the tribes of Banu Jusham, Banu Sa`d bin Bakr, a few people of Awza` from Banu Hilal and some people from Bani `Amr bin `Amir and `Awf bin `Amir. They brought their women, children, sheep and camels along, in addition to their armed forces and adequate supplies. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them with the army that he brought to conquer Makkah, ten thousand from the Muhajirin, the Ansar and various Arab tribes. Along with them came the Tulaqa’ numbering two thousand men. The Messenger took them along to meet the enemy. The two armies met in Humayn, a valley between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The battle started in the early part of the morning, when the Huwazin forces, who were lying in ambush, descended on the valley when the Muslims entered. Muslims were suddenly struck by the ambush, the arrows descended on them and the swords struck them. The Huwazin commander ordered them to descend and attack the Muslims as one block, and when they did that, the Muslims retreated in haste, just as Allah described them.
From the above incident it is very clear that Muslim army was not yet ready when the fierce attack took place. Naturally, there was fear and confusion in *some* lines of the army which cause them to retreated back for protection.
Did the great Mujahid (umar bin al-Khattab) who made the majosi empire to kneel down before him, retreat or run away from the battle ground as alleged by descendants of majos (rawafid)?
Those who stood firm with prophet (Allah’s peace and blessings upon him) from sunni books.
From commentary by ibn Kathir:
There remained between a hundred and eighty Companions with the Prophet . These included Abu Bakr, `Umar, Al-`Abbas, `Ali, Al-Fadl bin `Abbas, Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith, Ayman the son of Umm Ayman and Usamah bin Zayd.
This information also present in “al-Bidaya wa nihaya”:
فلما رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر الناس ومعه رهط من أهل بيته: علي بن أبي طالب، وأبو سفيان ابن الحارث بن عبد المطلب، وأخوه ربيعة بن الحارث بن عبد المطلب، والفضل بن العباس، وقيل الفضيل بن أبي سفيان، وأيمن ابن أم أيمن، وأسامة بن زيد.
ومن الناس من يزيد فيهم قثم بن العباس، ورهط من المهاجرين: منهم أبو بكر، وعمر، والعباس آخذ بحكمة بغلته البيضاء وهو عليها قد شجرها.
It mentions the names of those who stood firm with prophet…(and group of Al-Ansar: Among them Abu Bakr, Umar and Abbas…)
Same you can read in Sirah by ibn Hisham:
من ثبت معه صلى الله عليه وسلم :
وفيمن ثبت معه من المهاجرين أبو بكر وعمر ، ومن أهل بيته علي بن أبي طالب والعباس بن عبدالمطلب ، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث ، وابنه ، والفضل بن العباس ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأسامة بن زيد ، وأيمن بن عبيد ، قتل يومئذ .
Here you can see that those who stood firm with the Messenger were:
And those who stood firm with him from among the Muhajirin were Abu Bakr and Umar, and from Ahlul Bait Ali bin Abi Talib and Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib…
Also we can mention this:
رواية الطبري في كتابه تاريخ الرسل والملوك التي ذكر فيها ثبات سيدنا ابوبكر وعمر وعلي رضي الله عنهما يوم حنين
إلا أنه قد بقي مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نفر من المهاجرين والأنصار وأهل بيته. وممن ثبت معه من المهاجرين أبو بكر، عمر، ومن أهل بيته علي بن أبي طالب، والعباس بن عبد المطلب، وأبنه الفضل، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث،
At-Tabari narrated in his book Tariq Al-Rusool Wal-Mulook where he mentions the firmness of Abu Bakr, Umar and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all) on the day of Al-Hunain.
There remain with Messenger of Allah (saw) group of Muhajirin and Ansar and from his Ahlul Bait. And among those who stood firm from Al-Muhajirin were Abu Bakr, Umar and from his Ahlul Bait Ali bin Abi Talib, Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib,…
Waqede, even if we would acknowledge his weakness, can be used here as a support:
قال حدثني عبد الرحمن بن عبد العزيز عن عاصم بن عمرو بن قتادة ، عن عبد الرحمن بن جابر بن عبد الله عن أبيه قال لما انكشف الناس والله ما رجعت راجعة هزيمتهم حتى وجد الأسرى عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مكتفين . قال والتفت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يومئذ إلى أبي سفيان بن الحارث وهو مقنع في الحديد وكان ممن صبر يومئذ وهو آخذ بثفر بغلة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال من هذا ؟ قال ابن أمك يا رسول الله . ويقال إنه قال من أنت ؟ قال أخوك – فداك أبي وأمي – أبو سفيان بن الحارث . فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نعم أخي ، ناولني حصى من الأرض فناولته فرمى بها في أعينهم كلهم . وانهزموا . قالوا : فلما انكشف الناس انحاز رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات اليمين وهو واقف على دابته لم ينزل . إلا أنه قد جرد سيفه وطرح غمده وبقي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في نفر من المهاجرين والأنصار وأهل بيته العباس وعلي ، والفضل بن عباس ، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأيمن بن عبيد الخزرجي ، وأسامة بن زيد ، وأبو بكر ، وعمر عليهم السلام .
In his book Al-Maghazi mentions hadeeths of Jabir bin Abdullah
The Messenger of Allah (saw) remained with a group of al-Muhajirin and al-Ansaar and from his Ahlul Bait Al-Abbas, Ali, Al-Fadl bin Abbas, Abu Sufyan Ibn Al-Harith and Rabee’3 bin Al-Harith…. Abu Bakr and Umar.
Also we can mention quote from “Zaad al maad” by ibn Qayum (r):
قال ابن إسحاق : فحدثني عاصم بن عمر بن قتادة ، عن عبد الرحمن بن جابر ، عن أبيه جابر بن عبد الله ، قال لما استقبلنا وادي حنين ، انحدرنا في واد من أودية تهامة أجوف حطوط إنما ننحدر فيه انحدارا . قال وفي عماية الصبح وكان القوم سبقونا إلى الوادي ، فكمنوا لنا في شعابه وأحنائه ومضايقه قد أجمعوا ، وتهيئوا ، وأعدوا فوالله ما راعنا – ونحن منحطون – إلا الكتائب قد شدوا علينا شدة رجل واحد وانشمر الناس راجعين لا يلوي أحد منهم على أحد ، وانحاز رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات اليمين ثم قال إلى أين أيها الناس ؟ هلم إلي أنا رسول الله أنا محمد بن عبد الله وبقي مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نفر من المهاجرين والأنصار وأهل بيته وفيمن ثبت معه من المهاجرين أبو بكر وعمر ، ومن أهل بيته علي والعباس وأبو سفيان بن الحارث وابنه والفضل بن العباس ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأسامة بن زيد ، وأيمن ابن أم أيمن ، وقتل يومئذ .
Imam ibnul Qayyim (rh) in his book Zaad Al-Mi’aad mentions same hadeeths of Jabir bin Abdullah but through different narrator.
And there remain with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings upon him) group from al-Muhajirin and al-Ansaar and from his Ahlul Bait, among them who stood firm from al-Muhajirin were Abu Bakr and Umar, and from his Ahlul Bait Ali, Al-Abbas….
Number of sahaba who stood firm with the prophet
At-Tirmidi narrated in his “Sunnan” (1739), Albani said chain is saheeh:
(Chain) Ibn Umar said:
I have seen on the day of Hunain two groups turned their backs and there was with the messenger of Allah (saw) 100 men.
Ahmed and Al-Hakim narrated from hadeeths of Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah bin Masud from his father who said: “We were with the messenger of Allah (saw) on the day of Hunain when people deserted him, and those who stood firm where 80 men from Muhajirin and Al-Ansar.
Al-Heythami in “Zawaid” (6/183) said: “All narrators are saheeh except Harith ibn Huthirat, who is also thiqat”. Ahmad Shakir said chain is authentic in his notes to Musnad.
Ibn Kathir in his commentary and history mention that about 80, 100 companions stood firm with prophet (sallalahu alaihi wa ala alihi wa sallam).
In Sharh Muslim Imam Nawawi (rh) mentioned that 12 stood firm with prophet. In fath Al-Bari Imam Ibn Hajr said it is likely that he took this hadeeths from Ibn Ishaq who mentions the names of those who stood firm including Abu Bakr and Umar (Allah be pleased with them)….Allah knows best.
PS. by brother Umer.