Yazeed in the light of Islamic books


Salam alaikum, I am sure that majority of shias think that we – ahle-sunna wal jamaat – loving Yazid ibn Muawiya. However that’s not true. I am aware about scholars who tried to defend him as a personality. But in my humble opinion, he’s is a person who could be hated, and n0 one should blame anyone who would feel deep hate towards him in his heart. I’d like to post some quotes from classics of Islam regarding Yazid as a person.

1) First, I’d like to quote shaykhul-Islaam in hadith, ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (rahimuhullah). In his book “al-Imta bil al-Arba’in al-Matbainatus Samah”, he said:

وأما المحبة فيه والرفع من شأنه فلا تقع إلا من مبتدع فاسد الاعتقاد فإنه كان فيه من الصفات ما يقتضي سلب الإيمان عمن يحبه لأن الحب في الله والبغض في الله من الإيمان والله المستعان

Loving and glorifying him (Yazid) is not done except by innovator who has void belief because he (Yazid) had such characteristics that his lover deserves to be faithless, because to love and hate just for the sake of God is a sign of faith.

Source: “al-Imta bil al-Arba’in al-Matbainatus Samah” p 96.

2) Ibn Kathir wrote in his “Bidaya wa nihaya”:

فقال ابن الزبير‏:‏ يا هؤلاء قتل أصحابكم، فإنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون‏.‏
وقد أخطأ يزيد خطأً فاحشاً في قوله لمسلم بن عقبة أن يبيح المدينة ثلاثة أيام، وهذا خطأ كبير فاحش، مع ما انضم إلى ذلك من قتل خلق من الصحابة وأبنائهم، وقد تقدم أنه قتل الحسين وأصحابه على يدي عبيد الله بن زياد‏.‏
وقد وقع في هذه الثلاثة أيام من المفاسد العظيمة في المدينة النبوية ما لا يحد ولا يوصف، مما لا يعلمه إلا الله عز وجل، وقد أراد بإرسال مسلم بن عقبة توطيد سلطانه وملكه، ودوام أيامه من غير منازع، فعاقبه الله بنقيض قصده، وحال بينه وبين ما يشتهيه، فقصمه الله قاصم الجبابرة، وأخذه أخذً عزيز مقتدر، وكذلك أخذ ربك إذا أخذ القرى وهي ظالمة إن أخذه أليم شديد

Ibn Zubayr said: O people your companions have been killed – Inna Lillahi Wa Inna Ilaihi Rajiun
“Yazeed committed a mistake and that too a disgusting one by saying to Muslim bin Uqba that Medina become permitted  for three days. This was the biggest blunder. Many Sahaba and their children were slaughtered. As it has been mentioned before that Yazid killed Husayn and his companions by hands of Ubeydullah ibn Ziyad, and in those three days huge heinous crimes happened in Madina about which nobody knows except Allah. Yazeed wanted to secure his governance by sending Muslim bin Uqbah but Allah did against his wishes and punished him. Verily Allah killed him likewise Allah made grip over the oppressing towns, no doubt His grip is painful and strict.

Source: On-Line reference.

Imam Ahmed narrated from Sa’ib bin Khalad (RA) that The Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: Whosoever spreads injustice and frightened the people of Madina, then Curse (Lanah) of Allah, his Angels and all the people is upon such a person.
[Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal as narrated by Imam Ibn Kathir in Al Bidayah Wal Nihayah Vol 8 Page No. 274]

3) Ibn Kathir also said:

ثم أباح مسلم بن عقبة، الذي يقول فيه السلف‏:‏ مسرف بن عقبة – قبحه الله من شيخ سوء ما أجهله – المدينة ثلاثة أيام كما أمره يزيد، لا جزاه الله خيراً، وقتل خيراً خلقاً من أشرافها وقرائها، وانتهب أموالاً كثيرة منها، ووقع شرُّ عظيم وفساد عريض على ما ذكره غير واحد‏.‏
فكان ممن قتل بين يديه صبراً معقل بن سنان، وقد كان صديقه قبل ذلك، ولكن أسمعه في يزيد كلاماً غليظاً، فنقم عليه بسببه

And he Muslim bin Uqba, about whom salaf said: Musraf bin Uqba, May Allah not do well to this leader of evil and ignorance, he made Madina legal for 3 days on the order of Yazid. May Allah also not grant Jaza and khayr to him(i.e. Yazid), he got many righteous killed and also looted the amwaal in Madina in great numbers, this has been multiply narrated that he created a lot of Shar and Fasad. And he was  the one in front of whom was killed  Muaqil bin Sinan.  He was his friend before but later heard his strong words about Yazid and became angry with him

Source: Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah, Volume 8, Page No 280

4) Imam Aloose said in his “Ruhul maane”:

واستدل بها أيضا على جواز لعن يزيد عليه من الله تعالى ما يستحق نقل البرزنجي في الأشاعة والهيثمي في الصواعق إن الإمام أحمد لما سأله ولده عبد الله عن لعن يزيد قال كيف لا يلعن من لعنه الله تعالى في كتابه فقال عبد الله قد قرأت كتاب الله عز و جل فلم أجد فيه لعن يزيد فقال الإمام أن الله تعالى يقول : فهم عسيتم إن توليتم أن تفسدوا في الأرض وتقطعوا أرحامكم أولئك الذين لعنهم الله الآية وأي فساد وقطيعة أشد مما فعله يزيد انتهى

The Proof of sending Lanah upon Yazid is derived from this (ayah), as was mentioned by Al-Barzanji (rah) in his Al-Ashaat and Imam Haythami in As-Sawaiq from Imam Ahmed that his son Abdullah asked him about sending Lanah on Yazid, (Imam Ahmed) said: Why cannot Lanah be sent on him when Allah has sent Lanah on him in Quran, Abdullah said: I read book of Allah, and didn’t see there curse upon Yazeed, Imam Ahmad mentioned these verses: Would ye then, if ye were given the command, work corruption in the land and sever your ties of kinship? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed…(47:22-23) Hence could there be a bigger Strife than what Yazid did?

Source: “Ruh ul Ma’ani” by Imam Al-Alusi, Volume 9 Under Surah Muhammad 22-23.

5) Ibn Muflih Hanbali in “Adabu sharia” (1/336 shamela version):

قيل : لأحمد ابن حنبل أيؤخذ الحديث عن يزيد فقال : لا ولا كرامة أو ليس هو فعل بأهل المدينة ما فعل ؟ وقيل له : إن أقواما يقولون : إنا نحب يزيد فقال : وهل يحب يزيد من يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر ؟ فقيل له : أو لا تلعنه ؟ فقال : متى رأيت أباك يلعن أحدا

“It was said: Ahmad ibn Hanbal was asked: Would you take narrations from Yazeed?” He said: “No, and no karamah (honour?) for him, was that not him who done to people of Madina what he has done?”. It was said to him: “Group says that they love Yazeed”. He asked: Does anyone love Yazeed who believes in Allaah and the Last Day?” It was said to him: Would you curse him?”. Imam answered: When did you ever see your father curse anybody?.

6) Ibn Hajar al-Haythami said:

وبعد اتفاقهم على فسقه اختلفوا في جواز لعنه بخصوص اسمه، فأجازه قوم منهم ابن الجوزي ونقله عن أحمد وغيره

“And after (they) agreed in his (Yazeed) fisq, they differed in permissibility of cursing him by name. And group allowed that, from them ibn Jawzi, and was reported from Ahmad and others”.

Source: “Sawaiq al muhriqa” p 309-310.

And he said:

روى ابن الجوزي عن القاضي أبي يعلى الفراء أنه روى في كتابه المعتمد في الأصول بإسناده إلى صالح بن أحمد بن حنبل قال قلت لأبي إن قوما ينسبوننا إلى تولي يزيد
فقال يا بني وهل يتولى يزيد أحد يؤمن بالله ولم لا يلعن من لعنه الله في كتابه فقلت وأين لعن الله يزيد في كتابه فقال في قوله تعالى فهل عسيتم إن توليتم أن تفسدوا في الأرض وتقطعوا أرحامكم أولئك الذين لعنهم الله فأصمهم وأعمى أبصارهم فهل يكون فساد أعظم من القتل وفي رواية فقال يا بني ما أقول في رجل لعنه الله في كتابه فذكره

“Ibn Jawzi narrated from qadi Abu Yala al-Fara that he reported in his book “Mutamad fi usul” with chain till Salih ibn Ahmad ibn Abdullah which said: I said to my father: “Group of people attribute love of Yazeed to us”. He said: “O My son, does anyone who believes in Allah would love (tawale) Yazeed, and why not to curse the one whom Allah cursed in his book”. I asked: “And where Allah cursed Yazeed in His book?”. He replied: In saying of Taala: ” (47:22) But if you held command, you were sure to make mischief in the land and cut off the ties of kinship! (47:23)Those it is whom Allah has cursed so He has made them deaf and blinded their eyes”. And is there mischief great that murder?”. And in (other) report he said: “O my son, what to say about man who was cursed by Allah in his book?”.

Source: “Sawaiq al muhriqa” p 310.

Interesting quote that was missed by Ibn Jawzi, Qadi after citing this opinion from imam Ahmad said:

قال القاضي : وهذه الرواية إن صحت فهي صريحة في معنى لعن يزيد

“And this riwayat, IF IT’S SAHIH then it’s clear in meaning regarding curse of Yazeed”.
So obviously Qadi himself was doubting this riwayat, or at least he wasn’t sure regarding it. And in the answer of shaykh Munajid, you would see other narration from imam Ahmad, which is seems much much more authentic. And you have already seen it in the quote from ibn Muflih.

7) Qazzali said in “Ihya” (3/125, darul marifat Beirut):

فإن قيل هل يجوز لعن يزيد لأنه قاتل الحسين أو آمر به قلنا هذا لم يثبت أصلا فلا يجوز أن يقال إنه قتله أو أمر به

“And if it would be said: Is it permitted to curse Yazeed because he killed Hussain or ordered to? We would say: It’s not established, and it’s not permitted to say that he killed him or ordered to kill him”.

8.) Muhammad Salih Munajid said:

Praise be to Allaah. His name was Yazeed ibn Mu’aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan ibn Harb ibn Umayaah al-Umawi al-Dimashqi. Al-Dhahabi said: he was the commander of that army during the campaign against Constantinople, among which were people such as Abu Ayyoob al-Ansaari. Yazeed was appointed by his father as his heir, so he took power after his father died in Rajab 60 AH at the age of thirty-three, but his reign lasted for less than four years. Yazeed is one of those whom we neither curse nor love. There are others like him among the khaleefahs of the two states (Umawi/Umayyad and ‘Abbaasi/Abbasid) and the governors of various regions, indeed there were some among them who were worse than him. But the issue in the case of Yazeed is that he was came to power forty-nine years after the death of the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him); it was still close to the time of the Prophet and some of the Sahaabah were still alive such as Ibn ‘Umar who was more entitled to the position than him or his father or his grandfather. His reign began with the killing of the martyr al-Husayn and it ended with the battle of al-Harrah, so the people hated him and he was not blessed with a long life. There were many revolts against him after al-Husayn, such as the people of Madeenah who revolted for the sake of Allaah, and Ibn al-Zubayr. (Siyar A’laam al-Nubalaa’, part 4, p. 38)

Shaykh al-Islam described people’s attitudes towards Yazeed ibn Mu’aawiyah, and said: The people differed concerning Yazeed ibn Mu’aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan, splitting into three groups, two extreme and one moderate .  One of the two extremes said that he was a kaafir and a munaafiq, that he strove to kill the grandson of the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to spite the Messenger of Allaah and to take revenge on him, and to avenge his grandfather ‘Utbah, his grandfather’s brother Shaybah and his maternal uncle al-Waleed ibn ‘Utbah and others who were killed by the companions of the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), by ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib and others on the day of Badr and in other battles – and things of that nature. To have such a view is easy for the Raafidis who regard Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthmaan as kaafirs, so it is much easier for them to regard Yazeed as a kaafir. The second extreme group think that he was a righteous man and a just leader, that he was one of the Sahaabah who were born during the time of the Prophet and were carried and blessed by him. Some of them give him a higher status than Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and some of them regard him as a prophet. Both views are obviously false to one who has the least common sense and who has any knowledge of the lives and times of the earliest Muslims. This view is not attributable to any of the scholars who are known for following the Sunnah or to any intelligent person who has reason and experience. The third view is that he was one of the kings of the Muslims, who did good deeds and bad deeds. He was not born until the caliphate of ‘Uthmaan. He was not a kaafir but it was because of him that the killing of al-Husayn happened, and he did what he did to the people of al-Harrah. He was not a Sahaabi, nor was he one of the righteous friends of Allaah. This is the view of most of the people of reason and knowledge and of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah. Then they divided into three groups, one which cursed him, one which loved him and one which neither cursed him nor loved him. This is what was reported from Imaam Ahmad, and this is the view of the fair-minded among his companions and others among the Muslims. Saalih ibn Ahmad said: I said to my father, some people say that they love Yazeed. He said, O my son, does anyone love Yazeed who believes in Allaah and the Last Day? I said, O my father, why do you not curse him? He said, O my son, when did you ever see your father curse anybody? Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi said, when he was asked about Yazeed: according to what I have heard he is neither to be cursed nor to be loved. He said, I also heard that our grandfather Abu ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Taymiyah was asked about Yazeed and he said: we do not deny his good qualities or exaggerate about them. This is the fairest opinion. (Majmoo’ Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, part 4, p. 481-484)

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

9) Shia writer Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi in his book “The life of Imam Husain” at page 840 (internet version) wrote:

Regret of the Oppressor, Yazid
After the Muslims began to condemn that tyrant with regard to the killing of the beloved grandson of the Messenger of Allah (s) he became regretful and tried to transfer the blame of that crime to Ibn Marjana and he always said: “What would have happened to me if I had borne the pain and lodged him (His Eminence, Husain) with me in my house and fulfilled his demands and made him the ruler even though this would have brought me condemnation and my power would have weakened; due to having respected the honor of the Messenger of Allah (s) and fulfillment of his rights. May Allah curse Ibn Marjana; because by killing him (Husain) he has made me hateful to Muslims, and sowed their hearts with malice to me. Such that both the righteous and sinful ones have started disliking me for the seriousness of the killing of Husain. What do I have to do with Ibn Marjana? May Allah curse him and be furious upon him!”

Author: Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi
Translator: Sayyid Athar Husain S.H. Rizvi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications
First Edition 2007-1386-1428
Quds Press

10) Shaykh of shias Abbas Qummi in his book “Nafasul mahmoom” (p393, internet version) wrote:

It is related in Kamil (of Ibne Aseer), that when the head of Imam Husain (a.s) reached Yazeed, he was pleased with Ibne Ziyad. His confidence in him increased and he bestowed numerous gifts upon him and was pleased with his work. Within a short time, he was informed that people hated, cursed and vilified him, thus he (falsely) regretted the murder of Imam Husain (a.s), and said, “What would have mattered if I had taken his injury upon myself and would have brought Husain to my home, and could have handed him over whatever he intended, although it would result in a split in my kingship. I could have honoured the sanctity of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s) and could have observed his right and considered his family. May Allah curse the son of Marjanah! When Husain had requested him that he would place his hand in my hand and go away to another place and live until Allah gives him death. But he did not yield to him and killed him, and by doing so he made me detestable in the eyes of the Muslims. And he ignited my enmity into their hearts, while now the virtuous, as well as the evil ones, bear enmity towards me due to the gruesome massacre of Husain. What relation did I have with the son of Marjanah! May Allah curse him and keep enmity with him”.

Author: Haj Shaikh Abbas Qummi
Translator: Aejaz Ali Bhujwala (Al-Husainee)
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
First Edition 1425 -1383 – 2005
Thamin Al-a’immah Press

I would leave alone comments from “Kamil ziyarat” that Yazid was pleased. Because justice of shias something mythical.
Just pay attention directly to direct speech of Yazeed.

Conclusion:

In the end I’d like to share again with readers with my view. Just reminding, I am not a scholar, and neither talibul-ilm. So that’s only my view.

Yazeed can’t be loved, he deserve to be hated. Someone can say that his drinking wine, and others examples of fisq and lacks of morality isn’t proven. But for sure the least thing that can be said about him, that he is responsible for butchery in Madina, and with the connivance of him, was killed sayidina Hussain (radi Allahu anh).  These two things are facts.

And Allah knows best, wa sallalahu ala sayidina Muhammad, wa ala alihi wa ashabihi ajmayin.

4 thoughts on “Yazeed in the light of Islamic books

  1. There is a difference of opinion on who actually did the beheading of Imaam al-Hussayn. Majority of the classical sources say it was Sinaan bin Anas who beheaded him, while some of the classical sources say it was Shimr bin Dhi’l Jawshan who beheaded him (AS).

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