(By brother Al Hajjaj) Following are statements of prominent Shi’a scholars who admit and confess to the actual time of Maghrib and the time fasting ought to be ending:
Ibn babawayh al-Qummi, in his Fiqh al-Ridha, Chapter: Prayer Timing (Mawaqeet Assalat):
وأول وقت المغرب سقوط القرص، وعلامة سقوطه أن يسود أفق المشرق وآخر وقتها غروب الشفق
The initial time of Maghrib is the falling of the (sun’s) disk, and the sign of the disk’s falling is the darkness of the east horizon.
On page 104, he says:
وقد كثرت الروايات في وقت المغرب وسقوط القرص، والعمل من ذلك على سواد المشرق
Lots of narrations have been reported on the timing of Maghrib and the fall of the (sun’s) disk, however, the matter is based on the darkness of the east.
In his book al-Hidayah, Ibn Babawayh writes under chapter: The Time for Maghrib & Isha:
قال الصادق: إذا غابت الشمس حل الإفطار ووجبت الصلاة
al-Sadiq said: If (When) the sun falls, breaking of fasting becomes lawful, and prayer becomes due.
al-Mufeed in his (al-Muqni3a), Chapter: Prayers Timings & The Sign of Each:
وأول وقت المغرب مغيب الشمس وعلامة مغيبها عدم الحمرة من المشرق المقابل للمغرب من السماء
The initial timing of Maghrib is the sun’s set, and the sign for its setting is voidness of reddish (color) on the east (horizon) across from the west horizon.
al-Sharif al-Murtadha, in his Nasiriyyat, article 73:
وعندنا أن أول وقت المغرب مغيب الشمس
ِAnd for us, the initial time for Maghrib is the fall of the son.
Abus-Salaah al-Halabi in his al-Kafi fil-Fiqh, Chapter 4: Tayammum
وأول وقت المغرب غروب الشمس وهو أفضل، وعلامة غروبها اسوداد المشرق بذهاب الحمرة
And the initial time for Maghrib, is the sun’s set, which is best, and the sign of its setting is the darkness of the eastern (horizon) through the disappearence of the reddish (color) thereof.
Chief of Muhaddith, Ibn Babawaih al-Qummi, report the following in his book Al-Maali:
10. Reported to us, Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. al-Waleed, from Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Saffaar from al-Abbas b. Ma’roof from Ali. b. Mehziyar from al-Hasan b. Sa’eed from Ali b. al-Nu’man from Dawood b. Farqad saying:
I heard my father asking Abu Abdullah al-Sadiq [as] about the time Maghrib begins. He said: when its rim disappears. He asked: What is its rim? he said: its disk. (My father) Said: How do we know the disk disappeared? he said: if you looked and did not see it.
11- Reported to us my father, saying: Narrated to us Sa’d b Abdullah, from Abu Ja’far Ahmad b. Muhammad b Issa & Musa b. Ja’far b. Abi Ja’far al-Baghdadi, from Abu talib Abdullah b. Assalt al-Qummi, from al-Hasan b Ali b Faddaal from Dawood b Abi Yazeed from al-Saadiq Ja’far b. Muhammad [as] saying:
When the sun sets, the time of Maghrib has entered.
12- Reported to us Muhammad b. al-Hasan saying: Narrated to us al-Hussain b. al-Hasan b. Aban from al-Hussain b. Saeed from hammaad b Issa from Huraiz b. Abdullah from Abu Osamah Zayd b. al-Shah-haam or someone else, saying:
I once mounted mount Abi Qays while the people are praying Maghrib, and saw the sun has not sat yet, but actually disappeared from the people’s sight behind the mountain. When I met with Abu Abdullah [as] and informed him of what i did, he said: Why did you do that? WHat an evil act you’ve done. You should pray (Maghrib) if you do not see the sun, be it hidden behind a mountain or totally disappeared as long as it is not covered by a cloud a darkness. What is incumbent on you is your eats and west, the people do not have to check (beyond that).
16- Reported to us my fatherand Muhammad b. al-Hasan and Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Yahya al-‘Attaar (they all) Said: Narrated to us Sa’d b. Abdullah from Muhammad b. al-Hussain b. Abil-Khattab from Musa b. al-‘Attar from al-Mas’oudi from Abdullah b. al-Zubair from Aban b. Taghlib and al-Rabie’ b. Sulaiman and Aban b. Arqam and others. (They all) said: When we were at Valley Al-Ajfar on our way back from Makkah, we saw a man praying while the sun’s ray is up. This caused us unease feeling. However, He kept praying and we kept praying against him, saying this youth is from al-Madinah. WHen we approached nearer, behold he was Abu Abdullah Ja’far b. Muhammad [as]. We dismounted and prayed with him, missing one Rak’ah, and when we’ve done, we came to him saying: May we be your ransom, do you pray at this hour? He said: When the sun sets, the time of Maghrib has entered.
It is clear that Abu Abdullah, Ja’far al-Sadiq hold the same opinion of AhluSunnah. There was no one with him in order to assume he has done that out Taqiyyah.
To understand why the Shi’a differ from AhluSunnah, we must understand the following Narration, from al-Kafi, vol. 1, Book on Virtues of Knowledge, Ch. on the Differences of al-Hadith, Narration 10, which is really interesting:
“Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Safwan ibn Yahya from Dawud ibn al-Husayn from ‘Umar ibn Hanzala who has said the following.
“I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the two people with a dispute between them on the issue of debts or inheritance and they go to the king or the judges for a decision is it permissible to seek such decisions?” The Imam replied, “Whoever would go to them for a judgement in a right or wrongful matter it is like seeking the judgment of the devil. Anything received through such judgment would like consuming filth even if it would one’s established right. It is because of receiving through the judgment of the devil and Allah has commanded to reject the devil, “yet choose to take their affairs to Satan for judgment even though they are commanded to deny him. Satan wants to lead them far away from the right path. (4:60)”
I said, “What should then they do?” The Imam replied, “They must look for one among you who have narrated our Hadith and have studied what is lawful and unlawful in our teachings and have learned our laws they must agree to settle their dispute according to his judgment because I have made him over you a ruler. When he may judge according to our commands and then it is not accepted from him the dissenting this judgment has ignored the commands of Allah and it is rejection of us. Rejecting us is rejecting Allah and that is up to the level of paganism and considering things equal to Allah.”
I said, “What if each one of such disputing parties would chose a man from among our people and agree to accept their judgment but these two man would come up with different judgments and they would have differences in your Hadith?”
The Imam replied, “The judgment will be the judgment of the one who has a more just, having more better understanding of the law, Fiqh, the more truthful in Hadith and the more pious of the two. The judgment of the other one will be disregarded.”
I said, “What if both (of such judges) would be just and accepted among our people and none of them would have been any preference over the other?”
The Imam replied, “One must consider and study the hadith that each one of them would narrate from us as to which has received the acceptance of all of your people. Such Hadith must be followed and the one, which rarely accepted and is not popular in your people, must be disregarded because the one popularly accepted is free of doubts. The nature of cases are of three kinds: (a) A case that is a well-known and true to follow. ( A case that is well known to be false to stay away from. © And a confusing case the knowledge of which must be left to Allah and His Prophet for an answer. The holy Prophet has said, ‘There is the clearly lawful and the clearly unlawful and the confusing cases. One who stays away from the confusing ones he has protected himself against the unlawful ones. Those who follow the confusing matters they indulge in unlawful matters and will be destroyed unexpectedly.”
I said, “What if both Hadith from you would be popular and narrated by the trustworthy people from you?”
The Imam replied, “One must study to find out which one agrees with the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah and it does not agree with the laws of the those who oppose us. Such Hadith must be accepted and the one that disagree with the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah and coincides the masses must be disregarded.”
I said, “May Allah take my soul in the service of your cause, What if both Faqih, scholars of the law would have deduced and learned their judgment from the book and the Sunnah and found that one of the Hadith agrees with the masses and the other disagrees with the masses which one must be followed?”
The Imam replied, “The one which disagrees with the masses must be followed because in it there is guidance.”
I said, “May Allah take my soul in the service of your cause, what if both Hadith would agree with the masses”
The Imam replied, “One must study to find out of the two the one that is more agreeable to their rulers and judges must be disregarded and the other must be followed.”
I said, “What if both Hadith would agree with their rulers?”
The Imam replied, “If such would be the case it must be suspended until you meet your Imam. Restraint in confusing cases is better than indulging in destruction.”